Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB)

Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB)

The Baltic Artesian Basin (BAB) with a surface of ~480,000 km2 is one of the largest artesian basins in Europe. The BAB covers the territory of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, parts of Poland, Russia, Belarus as well as a large area of the Baltic sea, including the island of Gotland. The BAB is a multilayered and complex hydrogeological system. In the northern margin of the BAB, the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system (C-V) is the principal and most dependable source for the public water supply in Northern Estonia. Earlier studies established that the groundwater in this system has the lightest known isotopic composition in Europe (δ18 O values of ~-22‰ (Punning et al. 1987, Mokrik 1997). The C-V system of the BAB has been extensively studied using  isotopic and geochemical tools (3H, 14C, δ18O,  δ13C, 39Ar, 4He,  40Ar/, 36Ar, noble gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) concentration for recharge temperature, amount and composition of extracted gases (Vaikmäe et al. 2001, 2008, Karro et al, 2004,  Raidla et al. 2009).

 

To learn more contact:

Prof. Rein Vaikmäe. Institute of Geology, Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn,  Estonia, e-mail: Rein.Vaikmae@ttu.ee

 

Example Publications: 

Arkhangelsky B. 1976. Gidrogeologicheskoe raionirovanye (Vostochno-Evroppeiskaya platform). Gidrogeologiya SSSR. Svodny tom I. Moscow, Nedra (in Russian)

Punning J.-M., Toots M., Vaikmäe R. Oxygen-18 in Estonian natural waters.- Isotopenpraxis, 1987, 17, 27-31

Punning J.-M., Vaikmäe R., Mäekivi S. 1991. Oxygen-18 variations in the Baltic Sea. –  J.Radiat.Appl.Instrum. Part E., Nuclear Geophysics, v.5, 4, 529-539

Edmunds, W. M.; Hinsby, K.; Marlin, C.; Melo, T.; Manzano, M.; Travi, Y.; Vaikmäe, R. (2001). Groundwater evolution at the European coastline. W. M. Edmunds & C. Milne (Toim.). Management of Coastal Aquifers in Europe. Palaeowaters, natural controls and human influence (289 – 311).Geological Society

Vaikmäe, R.; Edmunds, W. M.; Manzano, M. (2001). Weichselian palaeoclimate and palaeoenvironment in Europe: background for palaeogroundwater formation. W. M. Edmunds & C. Milne (Toim.). Management of Coastal Aquifers in Europe. Palaeowaters, natural controls and human influence (163 – 191).Geological Society

Vaikmäe, R.; Vallner, L.; Loosli, H. H.; Blaser, P.C.; Juillard, M. (2001). Palaeogroundwater of glacial origin in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer of northern Estonia. W. M. Edmunds & C. Milne (Toim.). Management of Coastal Aquifers in Europe. Palaeowaters, natural controls and human influence (17 – 27).Geological Society

Mokrik, R., Mazeika, J.2002. Palaeohydrogeological reconstruction of groundwater recharge during Late Weichselian in the Baltic basin. Geologija 39.49–57.

Karro, E., Marandi, A., Vaikmäe, R. 2004. The origin of increased salinity in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia. Hydrogeology Journal, 12, 4, 424-435.

Kalm, V., 2006. Pleistocene chronostratigraphy in Estonia, southeastern sector of Scandinavian glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews, 25, 960-975.

Marandi, A. 2007. Natural chemical composition of groundwater as a basis for groundwater management in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system in Estonia. Dissert. Geologicae Universitatis Tartuensis, 21, Tartu University Press, 116 pp.

Marandi, A.; Karro, E. (2008). Natural background levels and threshold values of monitored parameters in the Cambrian-Vendian groundwater body, Estonia. Environmental Geology, 54(6), 1217 – 1225.

Vaikmäe, R.; Kaup, E.; Marandi, A.; Martma, T.; Raidla, V.; Vallner, L. (2008). The Cambrian-Vendian aquifer, Estonia. Edmunds, W.M. & Shand, P. (Ed..). The natural baseline quality of groundwater (175 – 189).Blackwell Publishing

Karro, E; Marandi, A; Vaikmäe, R; Uppin, M. 2009. Chemical peculiarities of Silurian-Ordovician and Cambrian-Vendian aquifer systems in Estonia: an overview of hydrochemical studies [Chemical peculiarities of Silurian-Ordovician and Cambrian-Vendian aquifer systems in Estonia: an overview of hydrochemical studies ]. Eesti TA Kirjastus, Tallinn. Estonian Journal of Earth Sciences 58(4), 342-352.

Raidla, V., Kirsimäe, K., Vaikmäe, R., Jõeleht, A., Karro, E., Marandi, A., Savitskaja, L. 2009. Geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system of the Baltic Basin. Chemical Geology 258(1), 219-231.

Marandi A., Vallner L. 2010. Upconing of saline water from the crystalline basement into the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system on the Kopli Peninsula, northern Estonia. Estonian Journal of Earth’s Sciences, 59, 4, 277—287.

Raidla, Valle (2010). Chemical and isotope evolution of groundwater in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system in Estonia., Tartu Ülikool) Tartu University Press

Raidla, Valle; Kirsimäe, Kalle; Vaikmäe, Rein; Kaup, Enn; Martma, Tõnu. (2012). Carbon isotope systematics of the Cambrian–Vendian aquifer system in the northern Baltic Basin: Implications to the age and evolution of groundwater. Applied Geochemistry, 27, 2042 – 2054.